If you want to have an overview of all the SharePoint functionality provided, you can look into the Office SharePoint Server 2007 Training (Standalone Edition).
The Training is meant for End Users (but Developers can also learn from it. ;) )
and covers the following:
- Enterprise Content Management
- Bussiness Process and Forms
- Portals and Personalisation
- Bussiness Intelligence
I found it usefull to get the overview.